Large bails of compacted milled fibres mark the start of nonwoven fibre production. These are broken down into individual fibres. The individual fibres produce an homogenous mix which is spread out to form a fibrous web of even thickness. These webs are layered until the desired basis weight is achieved.
The layers are formed into a fabric by a series of compacting stages. Compacting occurs mechanically, thermally or chemically:
- In needle-punching, hooked needles are pushed through the layers of fibres and pulled back to hook the fibres together.
- Heating in an oven activates the binding fibres added to the nonwoven fabric. As they cool they bond with the carrier fibres and so strengthen the nonwoven fabric.
- Another compacting method is to spray on dye, binders or applications. At Ziegler we carry out two-sided spraying and total surface impregnation if necessary.